Six papers meet the inclusion criteria and were summarized and reviewed. Both Thai and  Swedish massages are reported to relieve chronic low back pain by enhancing physical functions;  providing pain relief, improving disability and range of motion, improving psychological functions;  reducing anxiety and improving mood. Although based on different theoretical frameworks, they appear to be equally effective in relieving chronic low back pain.


Any tender or sensitive areas of the body are dealt with extra caution and are more commonly massaged in a soft, relaxing manner; whereas, massage intensity is increased for tension-prone sectors such as the lower back or the shoulders. Customized lotions or essential oil mixtures are also created by the massage therapist after evaluating the skin-type and body assessment of each client.

Completely new to massage? Book your first appointment either well before a race—at least a few weeks out—or wait until the day after. “Just like you wouldn’t test out new socks or shoes on day of race, you shouldn’t experiment with any pre-race bodywork,” says Denunzio. Those who are familiar with massage can benefit from a pre-race rubdown in the seven to two-day window prior to an event. Getting treatment less than 48-hours prior puts all runners—even those who are massage veterans—at risk of race day soreness.
Massage is used for hygienic, prophylactic, and therapeutic purposes and in athletic training. Hygienic massage improves the health and is a way of taking care of the body. It prevents excessive deposit of fats and salts and helps maintain the figure. For hygienic purposes, general massage is most often administered. One of the forms of hygienic massage is cosmetic massage, which is done to prevent wrinkling of the skin and to smooth out blemishes on the face and neck. In athletic training, massage helps maintain athletic form, combat fatigue, and restore strength after strenuous muscular work. There are several types of athletic massage, including preparatory, training, and restorative massage. Self-massage is used for hygienic purposes, in combination with morning calisthenics and aquatic exercises. Sometimes it is prescribed for therapeutic purposes (for example, in the treatment of contusions and sprains).

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A person receiving a deep tissue massage usually lays on the stomach or back in one position, while deep pressure is applied to targeted areas of the body by a trained massage therapist. The massage is beneficial mostly because it helps stimulate blood flow and relieve muscle tension, while at the same time lowering psychological stress and releasing “happy hormones” like serotonin and oxytocin.

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Sports massage has antecedents in earlier periods of history. The ancient Greeks and Romans combined massage and exercise in their athletic training. Various Asian cultures also developed forms of massage for dancers and for students of martial arts . As a formal practice, however, sports massage began in the Soviet Union and Communist bloc countries in the 1960s. Soviet teams were the first to have a massage therapist travel with them and work on their athletes on a regular and ongoing basis. Through sports and cultural exchanges, the concept of sports massage moved to Europe and the United States in the 1970s. Over time the benefits of sports massage became accepted, and sports massage became a part of the training regimen, first of professional athletes, then of college and amateur athletes. Today sports massage is recognized as a specialty by the American Massage Therapy Association.


The most widely recognized and commonly used category of massage is the Swedish massage. The Swedish massage techniques vary from light to vigorous. Swedish massage uses five styles of strokes. The five basic strokes are effleurage (sliding or gliding), petrissage (kneading), tapotement (rhythmic tapping), friction (cross fiber or with the fibers) and vibration/shaking. Swedish massage has shown to be helpful in reducing pain, joint stiffness, and improving function in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee over a period of eight weeks. The development of Swedish massage is often inaccurately credited to Per Henrik Ling, though the Dutch practitioner Johann Georg Mezger applied the French terms to name the basic strokes. The term “Swedish” massage is actually only recognized in English and Dutch speaking countries, and in Hungary. Elsewhere the style is referred to as “classic massage”.

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Deep tissue massage is a type of massage that aims at affecting the deeper tissue structure of the muscles. It also affects the connective tissue, known as fascia. Deep tissue massage helps with both small muscle injuries as well as chronic problems. Deep tissue massage is an excellent way to deal with a whiplash or sports injury, postural misalignment, treating spasms as well as muscle tension. During a deep tissue massage the therapist concentrates on releasing specific chronic muscle tension as well as the muscular knots, or adhesions.

Medical Massage is a controversial term in the massage profession.[50] Many use it to describe a specific technique. Others use it to describe a general category of massage and many methods such as deep tissue massage, myofascial release and triggerpoint therapy as well as osteopathic techniques, cranial-sacral techniques and many more can be used to work with various medical conditions.[51] 

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By far the most popular form of massage, Swedish Massage “relaxation massage” was popularized by early 19th century Swedish fencing master and gymnastics teacher Henrik Ling. Swedish massage involves long, flowing strokes, often in the direction of the heart, along with kneading and circular movements, all while using massage lotion or oil to minimize friction. Used most often for its relaxation benefits, Swedish massage is the common “introductory” technique for people who have never experienced massage before.
Post-event sports massage is given after a competition and is mainly concerned with recovery. It is geared toward reducing the muscle spasms and metabolic build-up that occur with vigorous exercise. Recovery after competition involves not only tissue normalization and repair, but also general relaxation and mental calming. A recovery session might be 15 minutes to 11/2 hours in length. Post-event sports massage is given after a competition and is mainly concerned with recovery. It is geared toward reducing the muscle spasms and metabolic build-up that occur with vigorous exercise. Recovery after competition involves not only tissue normalization and repair, but also general relaxation and mental calming. A recovery session might be 15 minutes to 11/2 hours in length. 

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Enhance your Swedish massage with psammo therapy, the ancient art of heated sand. The gentle and deeply affecting warmth of the Bavarian quartz and Persian salt provides physical and mental relaxation while stimulating the metabolism. It also has a purifying effect. This service is beneficial for arthritis, fibromyalgia and muscle and joint pain. It also aids sleep. 

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Cancer. Used as a complement to traditional, Western medicine, massage can promote relaxation and reduce cancer symptoms or side effects of treatment. It may help reduce pain, swelling, fatigue, nausea, or depression, for example, or improve the function of your immune system. However, there are specific areas that a massage therapist should avoid in a cancer patient, as well as times when massage should be avoided altogether. Talk to your doctor before getting massage therapy if you have cancer.
The deepest work in Swedish massage is accomplished with friction, where the therapist works deep into the muscles with the fingers, elbow, or base of the palm. Using circular movements, the therapist works deeply into the muscle, especially in bony areas, to release adhesions that can restrict movement. Friction helps the client to be more flexible, and it also releases deep seated muscle tension. 

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In this particular study, published in Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, therapeutic massage included techniques of tapping and friction, while DTM used “oblique pressure and a combination of lengthening and cross-fiber strokes.” All sessions were 30 minutes long and preformed daily, and all participants did not receive any other treatments during the course of the study. After 10 days, participants treated with DTM reported significant improvements in pain (lower back pain in this case) compared to those treated with therapeutic massage, based on scores using the Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index, Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale and Visual Analog Scales. (4)

Massage should not be done directly over bruises, inflamed or infected skin, skin rashes, unhealed or open wounds, tumors, abdominal hernia, fragile bones, or areas of recent fractures. Massage may cause bruising and rarely, hematoma (a localized collection of blood outside of blood cells), venous thromboembolism, and a condition known as spinal accessory neuropathy.

In the US, licensure is the highest level of regulation and this restricts anyone without a license from practicing massage therapy or by calling themselves that protected title. Certification allows only those who meet certain educational criteria to use the protected title and registration only requires a listing of therapists who apply and meet an educational requirement.[123] It is important to note that a massage therapist may be certified, but not licensed. Licensing requirements vary per state, and often require additional criteria be met in addition to attending an accredited massage therapy school and passing a required state specified exam (basically the certification requirements in many states). In the US, most certifications are locally based. However, as of March 2014, some states still do not require a license or a certification.[citation needed] However, this is thought to change eventually as more regulatory bodies governing the profession of massage are established in each state. Furthermore, some states allow license reciprocity where massage therapists who relocate can relatively easily obtain a license in their new state. Not all states provide this option.[124]
Deep tissue massage techniques are very similar to that of traditional Swedish massage with the primary difference being increased pressure application which aims at affecting the deeper tissue structure of the muscles. The massage therapist will choose between several strokes depending on the size of the muscle that is negatively affected. Our trained massage therapists do not force pressure into the muscle, but rather apply pressure until the muscle pushes back. The pressure applied should not be painful, but it is common to experience soreness after a deep tissue massage.

This package is the ultimate in couple’s pampering. Beginning with the aromatic therapy as you enter Le Reve, you are transported to an environment of sensual relaxation. Our aphrodisiac oil will stimulate your feeling of togetherness that will enhance your spiritual connection. During this experience, the couple will be massaged, have their facials, body wraps and reflexology performed by their own personal massage therapists at the same time and in the same room.


A dry-water massage table uses jets of water to perform the massage of the client's muscles. These tables differ from a Vichy shower in that the client usually stays dry. Two common types are one in which the client lies on a waterbed-like mattress which contains warm water and jets of water and air bubbles and one in which the client lies on a foam pad and is covered by a plastic sheet and is then sprayed by jets of warm water, similar to a Vichy shower.[77] The first type is sometimes seen available for use in malls and shopping centers for a small fee.
Sometimes you're not intimate partners, just traveling with someone you don't get to see often enough — a sister, mom or best friend — and you want to spend as much time together as possible. All of these scenarios are fine, really, because you make the rules up. If you want to talk to each other during the massage, you can. If you want to quietly commune, that's good, too. The therapists will follow your lead.
Quick muscle knot orientation: Muscle knots — myofascial “trigger points” — are a factor in most of the world’s aches and pains. Their biology is still mostly mysterious: conventional wisdom says they are tiny spasms, but they might also be a more pure neurological problem. Regardless, they can cause strong pain that often spreads in confusing patterns, and they grow like weeds around other painful problems and injuries, making them quite interesting and tricky. Although they are well known to many specialists and researchers, most doctors and therapists know little about them, so misdiagnosis is epidemic. For more information about how trigger points might be involved in your own medical history, see PainScience.com’s best-selling tutorial:

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Reflexology, also known as zone therapy, is an alternative medicine involving application of pressure to the feet and hands with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or lotion. It is based on a pseudoscientific[1] system of zones and reflex areas that purportedly reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that such work effects a physical change to the body.[2]

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Some research has shown that massage therapy can be effective during pregnancy due to its anxiety-lowering effects, and women who receive massages before and during labor tend to experience decreased depression, anxiety, and leg and back pain. Results from one study found that women who received massages prior to and during labor had significantly less pain, plus their labors were on average three hours shorter and required less need for medication.
Elementary Reflexology™ is a form of reflexology incorporating energy balancing with point specific work. Integrating the ancient art of Ayurvedic reflexology with the modern energetic principles of Polarity, and is based on the concept of the inter-relationship of the five elements: Ether, Air, Fire, Water, and Earth. What sets Elemental Reflexology™ apart is its foundation in the assessment and balancing of these five elements. Elemental Reflexology™ is focused exclusively on the feet, because in polarity, they are the most negative pole in the body-the place where energy is the most dense and tends to crystallize and become blocked. Working on the feet frees up this stagnant energy, allowing it to be released and flow freely throughout the body. This process is suited for all ages and many conditions.

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Diabetes: 6 points specified. One of them: “Place your fingers 2 centimeters below the knee, as shown in the picture. Massage this area with a little pressure for 5 minutes every day. It balances the digestive system. Diabetes is said to begin with stomach fire and proper digestion can reduce this problem. You will immediately see the result. This method is also used to prevent aging, arthritis and other forms of weaknesses.”
This modality was first developed by a Swedish doctor, Dr. Per Henrik Ling, though it possesses more than just Swedish influence. With techniques borrowed from several countries, including China, Egypt, Greece and more, Swedish massage is worldly in nature and combines many practices to create a massage experience that has become popular for good reason. Swedish massage is very therapeutic and very relaxing.

Start the new year off right with the ultimate in icy hot therapy for your aching muscles! This treatment starts by wrapping your entire back, neck and shoulders in moist heat packs while massage to your legs and feet begins with a cooling peppermint gel. After the heat packs have warmed you up, we work out all those areas of chronic tension with focused deep tissue techniques and include an application of MagSoothium products infused with natural anti-inflammatory, pain relieving and muscle relaxing ingredients. There’s a cool marble stone finish before turning over on the heated table to receive the second half of your massage including a Heavenly Hand Add-on, which is a nourishing blend of warm oils held in place with heated mitts and later massaged into the skin leaving hands feeling silky smooth and refreshed. By the time you’re done, you’ll feel like a newly minted version of yourself!
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No. Bottom line, massage should never hurt if you don’t want it to. Some clients specifically say that they do not want to be in pain, and that should be respected. However, there are certain techniques that might cause discomfort. If the client and therapist communicate and agree on increased pressure, you can incorporate these deeper or more aggressive techniques into the massage. They can cause a little pain at the time, and a little bit of soreness the next day. I like to compare it to how you feel after a good workout. A good Massage Therapist will also be very skilled at warming and softening the tissue layer by layer to decrease the amount of pain felt by the client.

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