Soft tissue techniques employed by sports massage therapists are effective in the management of both acute and chronic injuries. For example, adding lymphatic massage to the "standard care" procedure in the acute stage of injury will improve control of secondary, hypoxic injury and enhance edemous fluid removal throughout the healing cycle. Trigger point techniques reduce the spasms and pain that occur both in the injured and "compensation" muscles. Cross-fiber friction techniques applied during the subacute and maturation phases of healing improve the formation of strong and flexible repair tissue, which is vital in maintaining full pain-free range of motion during rehabilitation.


Did you know that the bottom of your feet could affect what's going on in other areas of your body? On each foot there are over 7,000 nerve endings called reflexes that correspond to every organ and system within your body. By pressing on these reflex points, you stimulate the nervous system and open energy pathways that may be blocked or congested.
A person receiving a deep tissue massage usually lays on the stomach or back in one position, while deep pressure is applied to targeted areas of the body by a trained massage therapist. The massage is beneficial mostly because it helps stimulate blood flow and relieve muscle tension, while at the same time lowering psychological stress and releasing “happy hormones” like serotonin and oxytocin.
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The Swedish massage can also be used as therapy for people who suffer from any type of debilitating joint disorder that causes them pain. This benefit of the Swedish massage works to increase the elasticity in the tissues, flexibility, and to reduce the paint that they feel. After the Swedish massage many of these people will find that they are able to use their joints more than before and with little to no pain.

With possible benefits such as improved fitness endurance and performance, increased flexibility and recovery time, and injury prevention, sports massage is way more than just a massage for athletes! Traditionally, sports massage is a deep tissue massage that targets the deepest layers of muscle in order to stimulate blood flow. It is best done before or after the event as a means to later restore or rehabilitate. For more, see our Comprehensive Guide to Massage.

There are many types of massage therapy, from classics like Swedish and deep tissue to more exotic styles like shiatsu. Whether you'd like to branch out a bit or have a health condition or injury, choosing a style of massage can be confusing if you're not quite sure what it involves. Here is a list of the most popular types of massage (including some that may be new to you).
In South Africa, massage is regulated, but enforcement is poor. The minimum legal requirement to be able to practice as a professional massage therapist is a 2-year diploma in Therapeutic Massage and registration with The Allied Health Professions Council of SA (AHPCSA). The 2 year qualification includes 240 credits, about 80 case studies, and about 100 hours community service.

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Not everyone should receive a deep tissue massage. Some people simply enjoy the sensation of deeper pressure to their muscles and others prefer a more gentle touch. Someone who has never experienced a massage before may not want to request a deep tissue massage. It is the responsibility of the massage therapist to determine if a deep tissue massage is necessary by way of a thorough health history and evaluation. A massage is only effective when the person on the table is comfortable and relaxed.
Swedish and deep tissue massages are very similar. The primary difference is the level of pressure involved. If you’re looking for relaxation and relief from tense, tight muscles, Swedish massage is probably right for you. If you’re recovering from an injury, deep tissue massage can be a helpful part of your treatment plan. Feel free to ask questions before you book a massage and to communicate feedback to your therapist during a massage. 

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During a Swedish style massage, the client will lie on a massage table in a comfortable position — usually facedown to start. Clients can choose to be clothed or nude; if they are nude, the massage therapist will drape them with a cloth so they are never exposed. A Swedish massage typically lasts from 45 to 120 minutes, depending on client need and pricing agreement. During the massage, the therapist typically employs all of the stroke techniques as a way to ease any tension in the body. Swedish massage is one of the most gentle types of massage and is known for being soothing and relaxing.
Stroke is the condition where the blood supply to the brain is interrupted because of some reasons that may cause many health problems.27 It usually occurs due to blood vessels ruptures. Many patients have tried reflexology as the alternative therapy in order to recover from strokes. The practitioners believe that pressure that they exerted on a particular point on reflex areas may induce a positive outcome and physical changes to the body.28
Deep tissue technique uses very little to no lubricant so that the muscles can be hooked or grabbed, thereby stretching and lengthening them, and to separate adhered muscle compartments. Strokes will be considerably slower and possibly shorter as the therapist waits for a slow release of tension. Some areas may be skipped so more time can be spent on specific areas of need. Doing this provides better alignment of the muscles and less restriction in the joints, thereby improving their movement and function. It is a massage in which the primary goal is less about general relaxation and more about promoting change in the actual structure of the body.

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Previous research has showed that reflexology can reduce the peripheral neuropathy of a patient who suffers from type 2 diabetes mellitus.31 76 patients ranged from 40–79 years old were listed from public health centres in Busan City. Tactile response to monofilament and intensity of the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy were used as the variable outcomes in this study. Tingling sensation and pain were reduced and tactile was more sensitive to 10 g force monofilament.32 The author added that the reflexology can be used as one of the interventions for encouraging foot care in patients who have diabetes mellitus.32 It also can be measured based on glycaemic control and nerve conductivity which show improvement with reflexology.31
In short, yes. An athlete’s medical condition and history should not be discussed with anyone except other trainers or coaches. There is nothing the media likes more than to hear a high profile athlete is sick or injured, so those discussions don’t happen outside of closed doors. The athlete is the only person who should be deciding what information they want to share.

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Recovery. Therapeutic massage helps the body recover from the stresses of strenuous exercise, and facilitates the rebuilding phase of conditioning. The physiological benefits of massage include improved blood and lymph circulation, muscle relaxation, and general relaxation. These, in turn, lead to removal of waste products and better cell nutrition, normalization and greater elasticity of tissues, deactivation of trigger points, and faster healing of injuries. It all adds up to relief from soreness and stiffness, better flexibility, and less potential for future injury.

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Reflexology is an alternative treatment for a variety of conditions and has been in use for thousands of years. The ancient Chinese and Egyptians have documented practices similar to reflexology as a treatment for certain afflictions. It involves the reflexologist applying pressure to specific areas in the hands, feet, and ears that affect certain reflex areas of the body.


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Alhough he was a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) through the National Strength and Conditioning Association at the time, Pietrunti says that he ultimately decided to pursue licensure in massage therapy as well. This provided that missing link while also being “a good way to ‘bridge the gap’ and provide a better service to my clients,” he says.

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Integrative Reflexology® is different than traditional reflexology, which is performed by a reflexologist, requires a separate training and discipline than massage therapy. Reflexology is an alternative medicine that involves an intricate and detailed application of pressure points to the feet, hands and ears with specific techniques using the thumb and fingers. Traditional reflexology is applied without lotion or oils. The specific techniques to certain pressure points are believed to effect a specific change to the body.

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Speaking of matching, our service path, The Elements Way®, means that Elements Massage™ studios will match each of you with the massage therapist that can best deliver a great massage based on the needs and requests you provide. During the session, each therapist will check in with each of you to make sure the massage session is exactly what you want.

The Australian School of Reflexology and Relaxation has been rated as Australia's leading specialist reflexology school. It is described as an institution that develops the skills to help others maintain their health condition by reflexology and gives the opportunity to own a business and mentoring and ongoing support are included. Practitioners graduated from this school are encouraged to set up a business in multimodality or home-based clinics, aged-care or disability services, and corporate or spa industries.


In Australia, Melbourne Polytechnic offers reflexology course for the students and accredited with Diploma of Reflexology. In this course, students will learn the skills to assess and treat the body, supporting its search for natural balance and well-being. It also includes how to develop specific skills in reflexology techniques, learn to provide clients with basic dietary guidance, and learn the necessary health terminology about chronic disease. The qualification from this institute is valid for the membership of national organization such as the Reflexology Association of Australia and also can be used for further studies in complementary medicine.


Sports massage was developed to help athletes prepare their bodies for optimal performance, recover after a big event, or function well during training. However, contrary to what the name suggests, you don't have to be an athlete to benefit from sports massage. Sports massage emphasizes prevention and healing of injuries to the muscles and tendons and can be beneficial for people with injuries, chronic pain or restricted range of motion.

With possible benefits such as improved fitness endurance and performance, increased flexibility and recovery time, and injury prevention, sports massage is way more than just a massage for athletes! Traditionally, sports massage is a deep tissue massage that targets the deepest layers of muscle in order to stimulate blood flow. It is best done before or after the event as a means to later restore or rehabilitate. For more, see our Comprehensive Guide to Massage.

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Not everyone should receive a deep tissue massage. Some people simply enjoy the sensation of deeper pressure to their muscles and others prefer a more gentle touch. Someone who has never experienced a massage before may not want to request a deep tissue massage. It is the responsibility of the massage therapist to determine if a deep tissue massage is necessary by way of a thorough health history and evaluation. A massage is only effective when the person on the table is comfortable and relaxed.

Nadine Smith, executive director of Equality Florida, a statewide LGBTQ advocacy group, said Monday's incident at Joy Feet Spa "underscores the need for statewide nondiscrimination protections." Smith's organization is backing the Florida Competitive Workforce Act, a state bill that would add sexual orientation and gender identity to the 1992 Florida Civil Rights Act.

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One of the most well-known and verified benefits of reflexology is an improvement in circulation throughout the body, which means that blood and oxygen are being cycled through the body more effectively. This means more oxygen reaches vital organs, thereby optimizing their functioning and further increasing the metabolism. This also results in faster healing and re-growth of damaged cells.
Phussapa Thai Massage School also offers reflexology training course. The educational systems available for this course are basically the theory, practice, and examination. This institution has the authorization from Thai Ministry of Education. The main curriculum included in this course is the general subject of reflexology such as the history of foot massage, basic knowledge of reflexology map, safe and proper foot massage, necessary equipment, and advice after session. For the practice session, a full session of one-hour foot massage and cool down massage is taught. The examination will be in written and practice format. After the completion of whole school course, the certificate will be issued.22 

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Ugly pain in massage therapy is, by my definition, never okay. Ugly pain is often caused by things that are not going to offer even minimal, delayed benefits, and may even be dangerous. It’s important to be able to spot ugly pain for what it is and completely eliminate it from any therapy you’re receiving. What kinds of handling may cause “ugly” pain?
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Ugly pain in massage therapy is, by my definition, never okay. Ugly pain is often caused by things that are not going to offer even minimal, delayed benefits, and may even be dangerous. It’s important to be able to spot ugly pain for what it is and completely eliminate it from any therapy you’re receiving. What kinds of handling may cause “ugly” pain?

Reflexology practitioners and the professional association have advocated that reflexology is effective for general well-being maintenance and treatment of chronic diseases such as strokes, musculoskeletal disorders, and stress. Due to its soothing massage and non-drug complementary nature, reflexology is widely accepted by general public. Yet, numerous systematic reviews confirmed that strong evidence of the positive effects of reflexology postintervention are lacking despite plenty reported small-scale trial and anecdotal evidence of reflexology for some common ailments. Adequate training of practitioners and reflexology programme accreditation are to ensure correct and consistent services are provided.


Pedro is a graduate from The Florida School of Massage, one of the oldest schools in the country, where he learned a variety of techniques. He specializes in giving relief to chronically tight muscles, as well as clients who experience headaches and postural dysfunction. He is proficient in deep tissue, trigger points, and Swedish massage, favoring different stretches and myofascial techniques in his sessions to best facilitate a melt and soft release effect in muscle tissue, and support gentle structural shifts to the body's alignment. Pedro has experience working in chiropractic offices, salt room spas and as a mobile therapist. ... View Profile
Reflexology, also known as zone therapy, is an alternative medicine involving application of pressure to the feet and hands with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or lotion. It is based on a pseudoscientific[1] system of zones and reflex areas that purportedly reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that such work effects a physical change to the body.[2]
Detoxification: 7 best acupressure points for complete detoxification of the body include the Great Rushing point on the webbing between the big and second toes, the Three Yin Crossing on the ankle, the Shu Mansion just below the collarbone, Union Valley on the hand, Inner Gate on the arm, Upper Sea of Qi on the sternum, and Lower Sea of Qi below the umbilicus. They claim that pressing on these points will flush out toxins, improve the immune system, reduce weight, prevent chronic diseases, and improve mental clarity.
Beyond the feel-good effects of the treatment, the practice and purpose go deeper than the skin and muscles by taking specific reflex points on the foot to induce a healing response in corresponding organs and areas of the body, as seen in the chart to the left. Kneading the soft fleshy ball of the foot, pulling on the toes, tracing around the heel and pushing deep into the arch are just a few of the many small, intense movements you’ll experience during a reflexology treatment.
Prenatal massage can be a safe way for women to get a massage during pregnancy. It can help reduce pregnancy body aches, reduce stress, and ease muscle tension. You can get a massage at any time during your pregnancy. However, many facilities, especially in the United States, do not offer massages to women in their first trimester due to the risk of miscarriage during this time.

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A person receiving a deep tissue massage usually lays on the stomach or back in one position, while deep pressure is applied to targeted areas of the body by a trained massage therapist. The massage is beneficial mostly because it helps stimulate blood flow and relieve muscle tension, while at the same time lowering psychological stress and releasing “happy hormones” like serotonin and oxytocin.
Chrysalis Signature Swedish Massage This classic technique promotes relaxation, relieves tension and stress, improves circulation and soothes aching muscles. Our Practitioners adapt their diverse advanced techniques, using light to medium pressure, to cater to your needs. This full body massage includes your choice of essential oil and added touches exclusive to our signature massage. 60/90 Minutes    $105/$139  

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Cathy Wong explains in her article “Deep Tissue Massage: Everything You Need to Know” on verywell.com that while Deep Tissue massages can be slightly uncomfortable, they have been known to reduce stress hormones and heart rate while releasing oxytocin and serotonin, which allow the client to experience a boost in mood and relaxation. Deep Tissue massages are often used to relieve chronic aches and pain, stiff necks, upper back, and lower back pain as well as muscle tightness. Therapists treat such issues by utilizing Deep Tissue massages to break up scar tissue and muscle knots and working out adhesions that might be hindering circulation and limiting movement.

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Typically, sports massage therapists hold a certification and maintain licensure. A good option is to become board certified through the National Certification Board for Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork (NCBTMB) and have an active membership with an association, like AMTA, to keep up to date with industry trends. Exact requirements depend upon the state in which the sports massage therapist practices.

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Swedish massage is defined by four or five (somewhat familiar) techniques, which have French names: effleurage (stroking), petrissage (kneading), tapotement (rhythmic choppings), and friction (rubbing). Some therapists now incorporate advanced techniques that have rehabilitating effects and stretches for improving your range of motion. But the ultimate goal here is relaxation. As the default Western massage, Swedish massage is an extremely popular, simple, soothing touch therapy. For more, read our Guide to Swedish Massage.
The massages are geared towards athletes and their sports. For instance, working on a runner will require doing a lot of leg work, but the upper body work will be minimal. Moreover, massages will target those areas that tend to become injured. For example, a massage session with a tennis player will involve a forearm massage that is preventive in the development of tennis elbow. If necessary, a whole session could be spent only on important areas, and skip completely muscles that are not overused in a particular sport.
"Back before we started wearing shoes everywhere, we developed natural stimulus points from the ground [making direct contact] with our feet," Colin says. "By walking and getting that stimuli, we would relieve stress. We don't get that anymore. So the idea of reflexology is going back and mimicking that stimuli to specific points and feeling where that stress sits."
But the relief model is certainly tempting. There are many painful-but-relieving analogies in medicine and biology.15 That’s similar to what good pain in massage feels like, but it’s not the same: no one thinks that lancing a boil or popping a shoulder joint back in is anything but painful while it’s happening.16 And we can’t necessarily take the good pain sensation at face value and assume it means there’s actually going to be a positive outcome. Brains are not all-knowing. Sometimes they see danger where there is none, and sometimes they see help where there is none.

Specialized massage tables and chairs are used to position recipients during massages. A typical commercial massage table has an easily cleaned, heavily padded surface, and a horseshoe-shaped head support that allows the client to breathe easily while lying face down and can be stationary or portable, while home versions are often lighter weight or designed to fold away easily. An orthopedic pillow or bolster can be used to correct body positioning.
A person receiving a deep tissue massage usually lays on the stomach or back in one position, while deep pressure is applied to targeted areas of the body by a trained massage therapist. The massage is beneficial mostly because it helps stimulate blood flow and relieve muscle tension, while at the same time lowering psychological stress and releasing “happy hormones” like serotonin and oxytocin.

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Pain management. If you have a condition like sciatica or osteoarthritis and are suffering from chronic pain as a result, Swedish massage can be an effective method for managing that pain in a natural way. Notify your massage therapist about your pain points, he or she can target those areas and use a stroking motion to improve local circulation and reduce muscle tension.

Ayurvedic Massage is known as Abhyangam in Sanskrit. According to the Ayurvedic Classics Abhayngam is an important dincharya (Daily Regimen) that is needed for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. The massage technique used during Ayurvedic Massage aims to stimulate the lymphatic system. Practitioners claim that benefits of regular Ayurvedic Massage include pain relief, reduction of fatigue, improved immune system, and improved longevity.[36]
Chronic back pain. The American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM) reports that 100 million Americans suffer from chronic pain, with is more than those afflicted with diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer combined. Additionally, back pain is the most common type of pain reported, accounting for 27 percent of all chronic pain cases. It is also the leading cause of disability in Americans who are 45-years-old or younger. Research has found that deep tissue massage can potentially help ease this pain, offering these individuals a chance at a higher quality of life.
There are 58 training programs accredited by the Commission for Massage Therapy Accreditation/Approval in the United States. They provide a minimum of 500 hours of massage training. Certified therapists have graduated from these programs and passed the national certification examination for therapeutic massage. They are also required to participate in continuing education programs to keep their skills current.
Reflexology is a systematic practice in which applying some pressure to any particular points on the feet and hands give impacts on the health of related parts of the body.1 Each point of the pressure acts as the sensors on the feet and hands and is links with different parts of body specifically.1 These sensors will be stimulated by applying the reflexology technique in order to improve the blood and energy circulation, give sense of relaxation, and maintain the homoeostasis.2 Reflexology session can be improved by other elements such as aromatherapy, peaceful music, and good environment settings.3 There is a term in reflexology called reflex zone therapy. Reflex zone therapy is where the body is divided into ten longitudinal zones from head to toe. In the reflex zone therapy, there are five zones on both sides of the body in which each zone diverge down the particular arm, and also continue straight down the body and down the particular leg to line up with a toe on the respective foot. Practitioners usually choose the suitable technique to be applied to the reflex zone therapy to gain optimized efficiency and impact. Reflexology is a complementary therapy instead of an alternative therapy to other treatments which patient already has based on reflexology maps.2 Complementary therapies nowadays are applied in many of palliative care or to alleviate a problem without dealing with the underlying cause in order to make patient's emotional, physiological, and spiritual health improve and increase the value of their life.4 Two methods of reflexology that have been accepted internationally are Ingham method and Rwo Shur method. The first method does not use any tools in its practice and the second method utilizes the use of tools such as a wooden stick.2 There are five theories that support how reflexology gives impacts to body health.5 First and second basic theories are related to energy. Energy theory advocates that body parts can communicate using electromagnetic fields and the communication can be blocked based on the surrounding respectively.6 Third and fourth theories indicate that energy flow can be restored and the fourth is about the pathway which is blocked can be opened.7 The last theory proposes that reflexology can break up the lactic acid crystal that usually deposited in the feet and allow energy to flow efficiently.5
Sports medicine A Western massage that addresses specific needs of athletes Components Swedish massage, cross-fiber friction massage, deep compression massage, trigger point therapy Timing During training, before or after events, to enhance performance, or promote healing postinjury. See Massage, Traditional European massage; Cf Deep tissue massage, Manual lymph drainage massage, Neuromuscular massage, Swedish/Esalen massage.
For example, I worked on the Indiana Sports Massage Team starting in 1989, as well as the NCAA Swimming & Diving Championships and National Championships. I coordinated massage for the 1992 Olympic Trials and was on the 1996 Olympic Massage Team for the Atlanta Olympics—the first time massage therapy was part of the medical staff for the Olympics. These were all volunteer positions, but I loved it!
Swedish massage is the most common and best-known type of massage in the West. If it's your first time or you don't get massage often, Swedish massage is the best place to start.  The Swedish body massage is the combination of many different  techniques rolled into one session. During this therapy session the therapist will work with the soft tissues and muscles in the body to help restore balance and health.

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Thai Massage is a popular massage therapy that is used for management of conditions such as musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. Thai Massage involves a number of stretching movements that improve body flexibility, joint movement and also improve blood circulation throughout the body. In one study scientists found that Thai Massage showed comparable efficacy as the painkiller ibuprofen in reduction of joint pain caused by osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee.[69]

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